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Authors: Valoroso, L.* 
Improta, L.* 
De Gori, P.* 
Di Stefano, R.* 
Chiaraluce, L.* 
Chiarabba, C.* 
Title: From 3D to 4D passive seismic tomography: The sub-surface structure imaging of the Val d’Agri region, southern Italy
Issue Date: 9-Jun-2008
Keywords: active faults, microseismicity, tomography
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.07. Tomography and anisotropy 
Abstract: Local earthquakes (passive seismic) tomography (LET) is a well established tool for the imaging of the sub-surface structure. Alternative to active seismics, the main advantages of using natural sources are the better sounding in deeper portions of the upper crust, the relatively low cost, and the direct availability of S-waves. The main drawback is the achievable model resolution, which is limited by the density of the seismic network and the distribution of elastic sources, rather than the elastic wave frequency. Recently, 4D variations (in space and time) of velocity anomalies have been recognized in active volcanoes (Patanè et al., 2006) and normal faulting systems and ascribed to the medium response to transient geological processes, like dyke intrusions or fluid pressure increase on fault planes. In this paper we show how LET contributes to the imaging of the upper crust in a very attractive region like the Val d’Agri in southern Italy, which hosts both significant oil fields and seismogenic structures. We show that LET allows to improve the definition of the crust structure, at depths larger than those sampled by conventional seismic profiles, and detect the space-time dependency of elastic properties in response to local variations of fluid pressure
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