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Authors: Spampinato, L.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Lodato, L.* 
Title: Shallow magma transport for the 2002-03 Mt. Etna eruption inferred from thermal infrared surveys
Issue Date: 2008
Series/Report no.: /177 (2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.05.013.
Keywords: thermal imaging
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The 26 October 2002–28 January 2003 eruption of Mt. Etna volcano was characterised by lava effusion and by an uncommon explosivity along a 1 km-long-eruptive fissure on the southern, upper flank of the volcano. The intense activity promoted rapid growth of cinder cones and several effusive vents. Analysis of thermal images, recorded throughout the eruption, allowed investigation of the distribution of vents along the eruptive fissure, and of the nature of explosive activity. The spatial and temporal distribution of active vents revealed phases of dike intrusion, expansion, geometric stabilization and drainage. These phases were characterised by different styles of explosive activity, with a gradual transition from fire fountaining through transitional phases to mild strombolian activity, and ending with non-explosive lava effusion. Here we interpret the mechanisms of the dike emplacement and the eruptive dynamics, according to changes in the eruptive style, vent morphology and apparent temperature variations at vents, detected through thermal imaging. This is the first time that dike emplacement and eruptive activity have been tracked using a handheld thermal camera and we believe that its use was crucial to gain a detailed understanding of the eruptive event
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