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Authors: Martelli, M.* 
Caracausi, A.* 
Paonita, A.* 
Rizzo, A.* 
Title: Geochemical variations of air-free crater fumaroles at Mt Etna: New inferences for forecasting shallow volcanic activity
Issue Date: 2008
Series/Report no.: /35 (2008)
DOI: 10.1029/2008GL035118
Keywords: helium
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
Abstract: We investigated the gas geochemistry of fumaroles close to the Voragine crater of Mt Etna that have a temperature of 90–95 C, are CO2-dominated, and have an air content as low as <1%. This is the first report of the monitoring of such air-free fumaroles at the Etnean crater area—previous studies indicated an air contribution of 70% or more. The helium and carbon isotopes (Rc/Ra = 6.5 ± 0.4, d13CCO2 = 1.7 ± 0.5%) suggest that the released gas is directly related to the magmatic degassing. The fumaroles were sampled 12 times between June 2007 and June 2008, which revealed an increase in Rc/Ra from 6.1 to 6.9 that can be related to the increasing volcanic activity at the summit area of Mt Etna. These fumaroles offer a new tool for detecting magmatic processes (magma ascent, refilling, degassing, etc.), and will be useful for volcano surveillance.
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