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Authors: De Astis, G.* 
Pappalardo, L.* 
Piochi, M.* 
Title: Procida volcanic history: new insights into the evolution of the Phlegraean Volcanic District (Campania region, Italy)
Issue Date: 2004
Series/Report no.: 66
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-004-0345-y
Keywords: Phlegraean Volcanic District
Magma evolution
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.07. Rock geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.10. Stratigraphy 
Abstract: New stratigraphic, major- and trace-element, and Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotopic data on volcanic deposits older than 14 ka from the island of Procida, Italy, are presented and compared with published analyses from the rest of the Phlegraean Volcanic District (PVD). Procida rocks range in composition from basalt to shoshonite and trachyte and show 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios varying within the ranges 0.70523–0.70678, 0.512539–0.512630, 18.99–19.29, 15.67–15.69 and 39.10–39.39, respectively. The presence of a compositional gap in the range SiO2=54–59 wt % is evidence of magma bimodality, and suggests that the feeding magmatic system was formed by at least two different reservoirs located at different depths. Geochemical and isotopic variations with increasing differentiation can be explained by fractional crystallization mechanisms, that in some cases were associated with crustal contamination that occurred in both deeper and shallower reservoirs; the most evolved magmas formed in the shallower one. Mixing/mingling processes also occurred. The variation of isotopic composition through time observed both for Procida and for Campi Flegrei and Ischia rocks is evidence of strong affinity between magmas that erupted on the entire PVD until about 40 ka. This indicates that they share a common origin and a common plumbing system. Most of the PVD eruptive centers active until about 40 ka lie within a NE-SWoriented volcano-tectonic belt extending from the southeastern part of Ischia, through Procida and Torregaveta volcano to the northeastern sector of the present Campi Flegrei caldera. This not only indicates the existence of a link between regional structures and volcanism in the area, but also suggests that PVD magma genesis and evolution were strongly regulated by extensional tectontectonics. In the last 40 ka the mafic rocks erupted along this extensional structure – from Torregaveta and the islands of Ischia and Procida – indicate that it still represents an important crustal discontinuity that focuses mantle-derived magmas. Procida trachybasalts are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light and middle rare earth elements (LREE and MREE), and show slight negative anomalies in the high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to average MORB. A slight depletion in HREE is present. Trace element and isotope systematics can be referred to a lithospheric mantle source. The lithospheric mantle source carries intra-plate and slabderived components, the latter probably inherited from a previous subduction event.
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