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Authors: Mariucci, M. T.* 
Pierdominici, S.* 
Pizzino, L.* 
Marra, F.* 
Montone, P.* 
Title: Looking into a volcanic area: An overview on the 350 m scientific drilling at Colli
Issue Date: Sep-2008
Series/Report no.: 2/176 (2008)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.04.007
Keywords: scientific drilling
volcanic stratigraphy
wireline logs
fluid geochemistry
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: A 350m deep boreholewas drilled in the Colli Albani volcanic district (Central Italy) in order to: understand the shallow crust structure beneath the volcanic complex; characterize the rock physical properties especially through in-situ measurements and, afterward, laboratory experiments; assess the local present-day stress field; install a broad-band seismometer at depth. The borehole is located adjacent to the western rim of the Tuscolano–Artemisio caldera, where several phenomena of unrest recently occurred. In 1989–90 a seismic swarm affected this area and a related uplift was recognized. In addition, high gas concentrations (mainly CO2 and H2S), in aquifers and soils, caused illnesses and casualties among inhabitants and animals in the past. We describe the investigations carried out at the drill site and the results achieved from data analysis.Wire-line drilling produced a complete stratigraphic record of the Quaternary volcanic units down to the Plio–Pleistocene sedimentary sequence and geophysical logs allowed a characterization of the rock physical properties. From a tectonic point of view, data provided by Dipmeter and Borehole Televiewer were used for investigations on the recent and present-day stress field and the results are compared to those available in the literature. In the volcanic units we recognized two main fracture systems, SW and NW dipping. Several faults intersecting the borehole showplaneswith oblique striae, indicating a prevalent strike–slip component of the movement. Finally, borehole breakout analysis defined an active stress field with a ∼E–Woriented minimum horizontal component. At the end of the drilling, a blow-out occurred, due to pressurized fluids trapped into the sandy unit drilled in the last fewmeters of the hole. Sampling these fluids gave an additional value to the borehole, providing information about the deep volcanic circulation and its possible connection to a deep-seated magma chamber. The main results show water with a Na–HCO3 chemistry and the highest salinity ever recognised in the area (Electrical Conductivity=10.12 mS/cm). Stable O and H isotopes reveal ameteoric origin ofwater and the absence of tritium points out a long residence time in the aquifer. Emitted gas is CO2-dominated, with N2 as second most important component. Helium isotopic composition of the gas allows us to estimate a magmatic component ranging in the interval 40–50%, one of the highest in the Colli Albani. Carbon isotopes of CO2 (−0.53‰ vs. PDB) suggest that it could derive partly froma magmatic source and partly by the thermal decarbonation of the carbonatic basement.
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