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Authors: De Martini, P. M.* 
Pino, N. A.* 
Valensise, G.* 
Mazza, S.* 
Title: Geodetic and seismologic evidence for slip variability along a blind normal fault in the Umbria-Marche 1997–1998 earthquakes (central Italy)
Journal: Geophysical Journal International 
Series/Report no.: / 155 (2003)
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing
Issue Date: 2003
Keywords: earthquakes
fault slip
normal faulting
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
Abstract: We analysed elevation changes induced by the 1997–1998 Umbria-Marche, central Apennines (Italy) earthquakes. We employed data from a first-order geodetic levelling line measured in 1951, 1992 and 1998. The line bears a record of pre-seismic and coseismic strains associated with the causative fault of the 1997 September 26, 09:40 mainshock (Mw = 6.0). A first level analysis performed under the assumption of slip homogeneity of coseismic slip shows misfits that cannot be reduced simply by altering the fault size and geometry. A more detailed analysis based on a distribution of coseismic slip obtained from broad-band seismograms provides a better fit and is in agreement with 1951–1992 elevation changes interpreted as precursory slip by previous investigators. The levelling data sets new constraints on the location, extent, dip and depth of the fault, in full agreement with seismological evidence and images from SAR interferometry. The data show no evidence for slip in the uppermost 3 km of the crust, suggesting that a major and widely recognized normal fault that exists in the area is no longer active and showing a tendency of present tectonic strains to revert the current topographic setting.
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