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Authors: Aiuppa, A.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
McGonigle, A. J. S.* 
O'Dwyer, M.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Padgett, M. J.* 
Rouwet, D.* 
Valenza, M.* 
Title: H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes
Journal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 
Series/Report no.: 7/69(2005)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2005
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.09.018
Keywords: H2S atmospheric budget
volcanic degassing
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.07. Volcanic effects 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.01. Geochemical data 
Abstract: We present here new measurements of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide emissions from Vulcano, Etna, and Stromboli (Italy), made by direct sampling at vents and by filter pack and ultraviolet spectroscopy in downwind plumes. Measurements at the F0 and FA fumaroles on Vulcano yielded SO2/H2S molar ratios of 0.38 and 1.4, respectively, from which we estimate an H2S flux of 6 to 9 for the summit crater. For Mt. Etna and Stromboli, we found SO2/H2S molar ratios of 20 and 15, respectively, which combined with SO2 flux measurements, suggest H2S emission rates of 50 to 113 and 4 to 8, respectively. We observe that source and plume SO2/H2S ratios at Vulcano are similar, suggesting that hydrogen sulfide is essentially inert on timescales of seconds to minutes. This finding has important implications for estimates of volcanic total sulfur budget at volcanoes since most existing measurements do not account for H2S emission.
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