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Authors: Chiaraluce, L.* 
Chiarabba, C.* 
Cocco, M.* 
Collettini, C.* 
Piccinini, D.* 
Title: Architecture and mechanics of an active low-angle normal fault: Alto Tiberina Fault, northern Apennines, Italy
Journal: Journal of Geophysical Research 
Series/Report no.: /112 (2007)
Publisher: AGU
Issue Date: 25-Oct-2007
DOI: 10.1029/2007JB005015, 2007
Keywords: Low angle normal faults
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
Abstract: We present seismological evidence for the existence of an actively slipping low angle normal fault (15¡ã dip) located in the Northern Apennines of Italy. During a temporary seismic experiment, we recorded ~2000 earthquakes with ML ¡Ý 3.1. The micro-seismicity defines a 500 to 1000 m thick fault zone that cross-cuts the upper crust from 4 km down to 16 km depth. The fault coincides with the geometry and location of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) as derived from geological observations and interpretation of depth-converted seismic reflection profiles. In the ATF hangingwall the seismicity distributions highlight minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) that sole into the detachment. The ATF related seismicity shows a nearly constant rate of earthquake production, ~ 3 events per day (ML ¡Ü 2.3), and a higher b-value (1.06) with respect to the fault hanging-wall (0.85) which is characterized by a higher rate of seismicity. In the ATF-zone we also observe the presence of clusters of earthquakes occurring with relatively short time delays and rupturing the same fault patch. To explain movements on the ATF, oriented at high angles (~75¡ã) to the maximum vertical principal stress, we suggest an interpretative model in which crustal extension along the fault is mostly accommodated by aseismic slip in velocity strengthening areas whilst micro-earthquakes occur in velocity weakening patches. We propose that these short-lived frictional instabilities are triggered by fluid overpressures related to the build-up of CO2¨Crich fluids as documented by boreholes in the footwall of the ATF.
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