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Authors: Stramondo, S.* 
Saroli, M.* 
Tolomei, C.* 
Moro, M.* 
Doumaz, F.* 
Pesci, A.* 
Loddo, F.* 
Baldi, P.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Surface movements in Bologna (Po Plain — Italy) detected by multitemporal DInSAR
Journal: Remote Sensing of Environment 
Series/Report no.: 3/110 (2007)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 15-Oct-2007
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.02.023
Keywords: InSAR
surface deformation
SAR interferometry
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.06. Measurements and monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.07. Satellite geodesy 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: We studied the surface deformations affecting the southeastern sector of the Po Plain sedimentary basin, in particular the area of Bologna. To this aim an advanced DInSAR technique, referred to as DInSAR–SBAS (Small BAseline Subset), has been applied. This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. In particular, we have processed a set of SAR data acquired by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) sensors and compared the achieved results with optical levelling measurements, assumed as reference. The surface displacements detected by DInSAR SBAS from 1992 to 2000 are between 10 mm/year in the historical part of Bologna town, and up to 59 mm/year in the NE industrial and agricultural areas. Former measurements from optical levelling referred to 1897 show 2–3 mm/year vertical movements. This trend of displacement increased in the second half of the 20th century and the subsidence rate reached 60 mm/year. We compared the more recent levelling campaigns (in 1992 and late 1999) and DInSAR results from 1992 to 1999. The standard deviation of the difference between levelling data, projected onto the satellite Line Of Sight, and DInSAR results is 2 mm/year. This highlights a good agreement between the measurements provided by two different techniques. The explanation of soil movements based on interferometric results, ground data and geological observations, allowed confirming the anthropogenic cause (surface effect due to the overexploitation of the aquifers) and highlights a natural, tectonic, subsidence.
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