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Authors: Cherchi, A.* 
Gualdi, S.* 
Behera, S.* 
Luo, J. J.* 
Masson, S.* 
Yamagata, T.* 
Navarra, A.* 
Title: The influence of Tropical Indian Ocean SST on the Indian summer monsoon
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2007
Series/Report no.: 13/20(2007)
DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4161.1
Keywords: Indian Ocean
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.02. Climate 
Abstract: The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is one of the main components of the Asian summer monsoon. It is well known that one of the starting mechanisms of a summer monsoon is the thermal contrast between land and ocean and that sea surface temperature (SST) and moisture are crucial factors for its evolution and intensity. The Indian Ocean, therefore, may play a very important role in the generation and evolution of the ISM itself. A coupled general circulation model, implemented with a high resolution atmospheric component, appears to be able to simulate the Indian summer monsoon in a realistic way. In particular, the features of the simulated ISM variability are similar to the observations. In this study, the relationships between ISM and Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) SST anomalies are investigated, as well as the ability of the coupled model to capture those connections. The recent discovery of the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IODM) may suggest new perspectives in the relationship between ISM and TIO SST. A new statistical technique, the Coupled Manifold, is used to investigate the TIO SST variability and its relation with the Tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO). The analysis shows that the SST variability in the TIO contains a significant portion that is independent from the TPO variability. The same technique is used to estimate the amount of Indian rainfall variability that can be explained by the Tropical Indian Ocean SST. Indian Ocean SST anomalies are separated in a part remotely forced from the Tropical Pacific Ocean variability and a part independent from that. The relationships between the two SSTA components and the Indian monsoon variability are then investigated in detail.
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