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Authors: Bizzarri, A.* 
Belardinelli, M. E.* 
Title: Modeling instantaneous dynamic triggering in a 3–D fault system: application to the June 2000 South Iceland seismic sequence
Issue Date: 29-Sep-2007
Keywords: Numerical model
Governing laws
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.02. Earthquake interactions and probability 
Abstract: We present a model of seismogenesis on an extended 3–D fault subjected to the external perturbations of coseismic stress changes due to an earthquake occurred on another fault (the causative fault). As an application, we consider the spatio–temporal stress distribution produced by the MS = 6.6 June 17, 2000 mainshock in the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) on the Hvalhnúkur fault. The latter is located nearly 64 km from the causative fault and failed 26 s after the mainshock with an estimated magnitude Mw  [5, 5.5], providing an example of instantaneous dynamic triggering. The stress perturbations are computed by means of a discrete wavenumber and reflectivity code. The response of the perturbed fault is then analyzed solving the truly 3–D, fully dynamic (or spontaneous) problem, accounting for crustal stratification. In a previous study, the response of the Hvalhnúkur fault was analyzed by using a spring–slider fault model, comparing the estimated perturbed failure time with the observed origin time. In addition to the perturbed failure time, the present model can provide numerical estimates of many other dynamical features of the triggered event that can be compared with available observations: the rupture history of the whole fault plane and its final extension and the seismic moment of the 26 s event. We show the key differences existing between a mass–spring model and the present extended fault model, in particular we show the essential role of the load exerted by the other slipping points of the fault. By considering both rate– and state–dependent laws and non–linear slip–dependent law, we show how the dynamics of the 26 s fault strongly depends on the assumed constitutive law and initial stress conditions. In the case of rate– and state– dependent governing laws, assuming an initial effective normal stress distribution which is suitable for the SISZ and consistent with previously stated conditions of instantaneous dynamic triggering of the Hvalhnúkur fault, we obtain results in general agreement with observations.
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