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Authors: Emolo, A.* 
Zollo, A.* 
Convertito, V.* 
Pacor, F.* 
Franceschina, G.* 
Cultrera, G.* 
Cocco, M.* 
Title: Ground motion shaking scenarios for the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake
Issue Date: 8-Oct-2007
Keywords: Colfiorito-earthquake
shaking scenarios
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
Abstract: In the recent years, two Italian research projects have been devoted to the simulation of ground shaking scenarios in different areas. A large part of the activities has been performed in the Umbria region and was in particular related to the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake. In general the statistical-deterministic approach was adopted for evaluating the scenarios for strong motion parameters (peak values, spectral ordinates, signal integral quantities, and so on) associated with the occurrence of a characteristic earthquake on a given fault. This approach is based on the realistic occurrence of a single earthquake related to the fracture of an a priori well identified active fault. According to the characteristic earthquake model, an earthquake rupture can repeatedly occurs along the same fault (or fault system) with an almost constant geometry, mechanism and seismic moment, these parameters being mainly related to the direction and intensity of the large scale tectonic stress regime. These ideas are supported by numerous paleoseismic studies of active faults in different tectonic environments [e.g., Pantosti and Valensise, 1990]. On the other hand, each faulting process may not repeat the same style of nucleation, propagation and arrest during successive rupture episodes occurring along a given fault zone, depending these characteristics on the pre-fracturing conditions of rock strength and/or yielding stress along the fault zone. It is therefore assumed that the large scale source characteristics (i.e., fault size and position, focal mechanism and seismic moment) are a priori known as the result of previous geological, geophysical and historical seismicity investigations. The variability of the rupture process is expected to produce variable strong ground motions at the earth surface, depending on the distribution of the kinematic parameters (final slip distribution, rupture velocity, slip duration …) along the faulting surface. In order to account for the possible variation of the source process from one rupture event to another, a large number of synthetic seismograms should be computed for different (and possible) rupture histories occurring along the characteristic fault selected, so to provide a representative set of strong motion records to be used for hazard estimation. By this strategy, the massive computation of synthetics for different possible rupture models does not provide a single earthquake scenario (as for the standard deterministic approach) but a set of possible scenarios whose variability substantially reflects the heterogeneity of the source process. The advantage of this approach is that the variability of the selected strong ground motion parameter at a given site can be described by the statistical quantities inferred from the large number of simulations available. The earthquake scenario can then be represented, for example, by a couple of maps, one describing the spatial distribution of the mean value of the considered ground motion parameter and the other representing the associated variability for example in terms of standard deviation.
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