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Authors: Harris, A. J. L.* 
Bailey, J.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Dehn, J.* 
Title: Heat loss measured at a lava channel and its implications for down-channel cooling and rheology
Issue Date: 2005
Keywords: lava channel
heat loss
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: During May 2001 we acquired 2016 thermal images over an ~8-h-long period for a section of active lava channel on Mount Etna (Italy). We used these to extract surface temperature and heat-loss profi les and thereby calculate core cooling rates. Flow surface temperatures declined from ~1070 K at the vent to ~930 K at 70 m. Heat losses were dominated by radiation (5 × 104 W m2) and convection (~104 W/m2). These compare with a heat gain from crystallization of 6 × 103 W/m2. The imbalance between sinks and sources gives core cooling (δT/δx) of ~110 K/km. However, cooling rate per unit distance also depends on fl ow conditions, where we distinguished: (1) unimpeded, high-velocity (~0.2 m/s) fl ow with low δT/δx (0.3 K/m); (2) unimpeded, low-velocity (~0.1 m/s) fl ow with higher δT/δx (0.5 K/m); (3) waning, insulated fl ow at low velocity (~0.1 m/s) with low δT/δx (0.3 K/m); and (4) impeded fl ow at low velocity (<0.1 m/s) with higher δT/δx (0.4 K/m). Our data allow us to defi ne three thermal states of fl ow emplacement: insulated, rapid, and protected. Insulated is promoted by the formation of hanging blockages and coherent roofs. During rapid emplacement, higher velocities suppress cooling rates, and δT/δx can be tied to mean velocity (Vmean) by δT/δx = aVmean –b. In the protected case, deeper, narrow channels present a thermally effi cient channel, where δT/δx can be assessed using the ratio of channel width (w) to depth (d) in w/d = aδT/δx–b.
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