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dc.contributor.authorallPatrick, M. R.; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetologyen
dc.contributor.authorallHarris, A. J. L.; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetologyen
dc.contributor.authorallRipepe, M.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Firenzeen
dc.contributor.authorallDehn, J.; Alaska Volcano Observatory, Geophysical Instituteen
dc.contributor.authorallRothery, D. A.; Department of Earth Sciences, The Open Universityen
dc.contributor.authorallCalvari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italiaen
dc.description.abstractForward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) cameras offer a unique view of explosive volcanism by providing an image of calibrated temperatures. In this study, 344 eruptive events at Stromboli volcano, Italy, were imaged in 2001–2004 with a FLIR camera operating at up to 30 Hz. The FLIR was effective at revealing both ash plumes and coarse ballistic scoria, and a wide range of eruption styles was recorded. Eruptions at Stromboli can generally be classified into two groups: Type 1 eruptions, which are dominated by coarse ballistic particles, and Type 2 eruptions, which consist of an optically-thick, ash-rich plume, with (Type 2a) or without (Type 2b) large numbers of ballistic particles. Furthermore, Type 2a plumes exhibited gas thrust velocities (>15 m s−1) while Type 2b plumes were limited to buoyant velocities (<15 m s−1) above the crater rim. A given vent would normally maintain a particular gross eruption style (Type 1 vs. 2) for days to weeks, indicating stability of the uppermost conduit on these timescales. Velocities at the crater rim had a range of 3–101 m s−1, with an overall mean value of 24 m s−1. Mean crater rim velocities by eruption style were: Type 1= 34 m s−1, Type 2a=31 m s−1, Type 2b=7 m s−1. Eruption durations had a range of 6–41 s, with a mean of 15 s, similar among eruption styles. The ash in Type 2 eruptions originates from either backfilled material (crater wall slumping or ejecta rollback) or rheological changes in the uppermost magma column. Type 2a and 2b behaviors are shown to be a function of the overpressure of the bursting slug. In general, our imaging data support a broadening of the current paradigm for strombolian behavior, incorporating an uppermost conduit that can be more variable than is commonly considered.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF grant no. EAR-0207734, NERC grant no. NER/B/S/2001/00707, the USGS Volcano Hazards Program and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanksen
dc.relation.ispartofBulletin of Volcanologyen
dc.subjectStromboli volcanoen
dc.subjectvolcano monitoringen
dc.subjectthermal imagingen
dc.subjecteruption dynamicsen
dc.titleStrombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) videoen
dc.subject.INGV04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoringen
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dc.description.obiettivoSpecifico1.5. TTC - Sorveglianza dell'attività eruttiva dei vulcanien
dc.description.journalTypeJCR Journalen
dc.contributor.authorPatrick, M. R.en
dc.contributor.authorHarris, A. J. L.en
dc.contributor.authorRipepe, M.en
dc.contributor.authorDehn, J.en
dc.contributor.authorRothery, D. A.en
dc.contributor.authorCalvari, S.en
dc.contributor.departmentHawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetologyen
dc.contributor.departmentHawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetologyen
dc.contributor.departmentDipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Firenzeen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Earth Sciences, The Open Universityen
dc.contributor.departmentIstituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione OE, Catania, Italiaen
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crisitem.department.parentorgIstituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia- Institute of Geophysics and Planetology and School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa,- of Earth Sciences, The Open University- Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione OE, Catania, Italia- Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-
crisitem.classification.parent04. Solid Earth-
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