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Authors: Tizzani, P.* 
Berardino, P.* 
Casu, F.* 
Euillades, P.* 
Manzo, M.* 
Ricciardi, G. P.* 
Zeni, G.* 
Lanari, R.* 
Title: Surface deformation of Long Valley caldera and Mono Basin, California investigated with the SBAS-InSAR approach
Issue Date: 2007
Series/Report no.: /108 (2007)
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2006.11.015
Keywords: Differential SAR Interferometry
Microwave remote sensing
Long Valley caldera
Mono Basin
Caldera unrest
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.07. Satellite geodesy 
Abstract: We investigate the surface deformation of the eastern California area that includes Long Valley caldera and Mono Basin. We apply the SAR Interferometry (InSAR) algorithm referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach that allows us to generate mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series for the investigated area. The results presented in this work represent an advancement of previous InSAR studies of the area that are mostly focused on the deformation affecting the caldera. In particular, the proposed analysis is based on 21 SAR data acquired by the ERS-1/2 sensors during the 1992–2000 time interval, and demonstrates the capability of the SBAS procedure to identify and analyze displacement patterns at different spatial scales for the overall area spanning approximately 5000 km2. Two previously unreported localized deformation effects have been detected at Paoha Island, located within the Mono Lake, and in the McGee Creek area within the Sierra Nevada mountains, a zone to the south of the Long Valley caldera. In addition a spatially extended uplift effect, which strongly affects the caldera, has been identified and analyzed in detail. The InSAR results clearly show that the displacement phenomena affecting the Long Valley caldera have a maximum in correspondence of the resurgent dome and are characterized by the sequence of three different effects: a 1992–1997 uplift background, a 1997–1998 unrest phenomenon and a 1998–2000 subsidence phase. Moreover, the analysis of the retrieved displacement time series allows us to map the extent of the zone with a temporal deformation behavior highly correlated with the detected three-phases deformation pattern: background uplift-unrest-subsidence. We show that the mapped area clearly extends outside the northern part of the caldera slopes; accordingly, we suggest that future inversion models take this new evidence into account. The final discussion is dedicated to a comparison between the retrieved InSAR measurements and a set of GPS and leveling data, confirming the validity of the results achieved through the SBASInSAR analysis.
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