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Authors: Todesco, M. 
Title: Hydrothermal fluid circulation and its effect on caldera unrest
Issue Date: 2007
Keywords: hydrothermal activity
caldera unrest
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: This paper focuses on the role that hydrothermal systems may play in caldera unrest. Changes in the fluid chemistry, temperature, and discharge rate of hydrothermal systems are commonly detected at the surface during volcanic unrest, as hydrothermal fluids adjust to changing subsurface conditions. Geochemical monitoring is carried out to observe the evolving system conditions. Circulating fluids can also generate signals that affect geophysical parameters monitored at the surface. Effective hazard evaluation requires a proper understanding of unrest phenomena and correct interpretation of their causes. Physical modeling of fluid circulation allows quantification of the evolution of a hydrothermal system, and hence evaluation of the potential role of hydrothermal fluids during caldera unrest. Modeling results can be compared with monitoring data, and then contribute to the interpretation of the recent caldera evolution. This paper: 1) describes the main features of hydrothermal systems; 2) briefly reviews numerical modeling of heat and fluid flow through porous media; 3) highlight the effects of hydrothermal fluids on unrest processes; and 4) describes some model applications to the Phlegrean Fields caldera. Simultaneous modeling of different independent parameters has proved to be a powerful tool for understanding caldera unrest. The results highlight the importance of comprehensive conceptual models that incorporate all the available geochemical and geophysical information, and they also stress the need for high-quality, multi-parameter monitoring and modeling of volcanic activity.
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