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Authors: Bruno, P. P.* 
Ricciardi, G. P.* 
Petrillo, Z.* 
Di Fiore, V.* 
Troiano, A.* 
Chiodini, G.* 
Title: Geophysical and hydrogeological experiments from a shallow hydrothermal system at Solfatara Volcano, Campi Flegrei, Italy: Response to caldera unrest
Issue Date: 5-Jun-2007
Series/Report no.: / 112 (2007)
DOI: 10.1029/2006JB004383
Keywords: Geophysical
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.02. Hydrological processes: interaction, transport, dynamics 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
Abstract: Integration of high-resolution geophysical and hydrogeological investigations at Solfatara Volcano, Campi Flegrei, Italy, allowed us to (1) image the shallow and intermediate subsurface to the crater, (2) elucidate patterns in the shallow subsurface degassing, and (3) refine and upgrade volcano-monitoring strategies for this dynamic area. Our results show that the subsurface to the crater can be divided roughly into two zones: a dry, outcropping layer overlying a horizon saturated by hydrothermal fluids. Within this saturated zone, intersections of dominant NW- and ENE-striking structural lineaments act as preferential escape conduits for the fluids which generate high microseismic noise amplitudes in the southeastern part of the crater. Hydrogeological data suggest an uprising of the isotherms below Solfatara crater, and a marked increment of fluid degassing, over the last 40 years. Sudden variations of both seismic noise level and noise cycling are positively correlated with early stages of ground inflation during the AD 2000 uplift. We believe therefore that monitoring of seismic noise can be used for upgrading early warning strategies in this sector of the Campi Flegrei volcanic system.
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