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Authors: Bonforte, A.* 
Gambino, S.* 
Guglielmino, F.* 
Obrizzo, F.* 
Palano, M.* 
Puglisi, G.* 
Title: Ground deformation modeling of flank dynamics prior to the 2002 eruption of Mt. Etna
Issue Date: 2007
Series/Report no.: / 69 (2007)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-006-0106-1
Keywords: Ground deformation
Flank dynamics
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.06. Measurements and monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: On 22 September 2002, 1 month before the beginning of the flank eruption on the NE Rift, an M-3.7 earthquake struck the northeastern part of Mt. Etna, on the westernmost part of the Pernicana fault. In order to investigate the ground deformation pattern associated with this event, a multi-disciplinary approach is presented here. Just after the earthquake, specific GPS surveys were carried out on two small sub-networks, aimed at monitoring the eastern part of the Pernicana fault, and some baselines belonging to the northeastern EDM monitoring network of Mt. Etna were measured. The leveling route on the northeastern flank of the volcano was also surveyed. Furthermore, an investigation using SAR interferometry was performed and also the continuous tilt data recorded at a high precision sensor close to the epicenter were analyzed to constrain the coseismic deformation. The results of the geodetic surveys show a ground deformation pattern that affects the entire northeastern flank of the volcano, clearly shaped by the Pernicana fault, but too strong and wide to be related only to an M-3.7 earthquake. Leveling and DInSAR data highlight a local strong subsidence, up to 7 cm, close to the Pernicana fault. Significant displacements, up to 2 cm, were also detected on the upper part of the NE Rift and in the summit craters area, while the displacements decrease at lower altitude, suggesting that the dislocation did not continue further eastward. Three-dimensional GPS data inversions have been attempted in order to model the ground deformation source and its relationship with the volcano plumbing system. The model has also been constrained by vertical displacements measured by the leveling survey and by the deformation map obtained by SAR interferometry.
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