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Authors: Castellano, M.* 
Bianco, F.* 
Augusti, V.* 
Castrucci, M.* 
Bestetti, A.* 
Angori, E.* 
Martufi, G.* 
Landi, G.* 
Title: Using WiMAX technology to improve volcano monitoring: the WEIRD System
Issue Date: 13-Nov-2007
Keywords: WiMAX
volcano monitoring
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring 
Abstract: IEEE 802.16 standards (IEEE, 2004; IEEE, 2005), commonly known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Forum), is one of the most promising broadband wireless access technology for next generation all-IP networks. This access technology allows reaching high bit rate and covering large areas with a single Base Station (BS). Thanks to these features, IEEE 802.16 opens the way for the use and the introduction of wireless technologies in particular emergency scenarios, like volcano monitoring. Active volcano surveillance is based prevalently on the analysis of geophysical and geochemical parameters gathered by monitoring networks. Of all, seismology is one of the most useful methods for volcano monitoring. In fact, several types of seismic signals, e.g. volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT), long-period events (LP), volcanic tremor, can occur before and during an eruption. The analysis and interpretation of these seismic signals are a very important task for the volcanic eruption forecasting (Scarpa and Tilling, 1996). WiMAX technology can be applied to provide broadband wireless access in volcano monitoring scenarios, in order to solve all the problems that today limit the possibility to realize a real-time and accurate monitoring of volcanoes activities in emergency situations. In particular, this paper focus on a novel solution, designed within the IST FP6 EU WEIRD (WiMAX Extension to Isolated Research Data networks) Integrated Project, to perform volcano monitoring using the features offered by IEEE 802.16 networks in order to improve transmission of data acquired by temporary seismic stations deployed during emergencies. Tests performed on field demonstrate the advantages offered by the use of WiMAX compared with other commonly used technologies.
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