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Authors: Bonaccorso, A.* 
Cianetti, S.* 
Giunchi, C.* 
Trasatti, E.* 
Bonafede, M.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Analytical and 3-D numerical modelling of Mt. Etna (Italy) volcano inflation
Journal: Geophysical Journal International 
Series/Report no.: 163 (2005)
Publisher: Blackwell
Issue Date: 2005
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02777.x
Keywords: finite-element methods
lateral heterogeneity
volcanic activity
volcanic structure
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.08. Theory and Models 
Abstract: Since 1993, geodetic data obtained by different techniques (GPS, EDM, SAR, levelling) have detected a consistent inflation of the Mt. Etna volcano. The inflation, culminating with the 1998– 2001 strong explosive activity from summit craters and recent 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, is interpreted in terms of magma ascent and refilling of the volcanic plumbing system and reservoirs. We have modelled the 1993–1997 EDM and GPS data by 3-D pressurized sources to infer the position and dimension of the magma reservoir. We have performed analytical inversions of the observed deformation using both spheroidal and ellipsoidal sources embedded in a homogeneous elastic half-space and by applying different inversion methods. Solutions for these types of sources show evidence of a vertically elongated magma reservoir located 6 km beneath the summit craters. The maximum elevation of topography is comparable to such depth and strong heterogeneities are inferred from seismic tomography; in order to assess their importance, further 3-D numerical models, employing source parameters extracted from analytical models, have been developed using the finite-element technique. The deformation predicted by all the models considered shows a general agreement with the 1993–1997 data, suggesting the primary role of a pressure source, while the complexities of the medium play a minor role under elastic conditions. However, major discrepancies between data and models are located in the SE sector, suggesting that sliding along potential detachment surfaces may contribute to amplify deformation during the inflation. For the first time realistic features of Mt. Etna are studied by a 3-D numerical model characterized by the topography and lateral variations of elastic structure, providing a framework for a deeper insight into the relationships between internal sources and tectonic structures.
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