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Authors: Tinti, S.* 
Maramai, A.* 
Armigliato, A.* 
Graziani, L.* 
Manucci, A.* 
Pagnoni, G.* 
Zaniboni, F.* 
Title: Observations of physical effects from tsunamis of December 30, 2002 at Stromboli volcano, southern Italy
Issue Date: 2006
Series/Report no.: / 68 (2006)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-005-0021-x
Keywords: Stromboli
Runup heights
Tsunami effects
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: On December 30, 2002, following an intense period of activity of Stromboli volcano (south Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), complex mass failures occurred on the northwest slope of the mountain which also involved the underwater portion of the volcanic edifice for a total volume of about 2–3×107 m3. Two main landslides occurred within a time separation of 7 min, and both set tsunami waves in motion that hit the coasts of Stromboli causing injuries to three people and severe damage to buildings and structures. The tsunamis also caused damage on the island of Panarea, some 20 km to the SSE from the source. They were observed all over the Aeolian archipelago, at the island of Ustica to the west, along the northern Sicily coasts to the south as well as along the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria to the east and in Campania to the north. This paper presents field observations that were made in the days and weeks immediately following the events. The results of the quantitative investigations undertaken in the most affected places, namely along the coasts of Stromboli and on the island of Panarea, are reported in order to highlight the dynamics of the attacking waves and their impact on the physical environment, on the coastal structures and on the coastal residential zone. In Stromboli, the tsunami waves were most violent along the northern and northeastern coastal belt between Punta Frontone and the village of Scari, with maximum runup heights of about 11 m measured on the beach of Spiaggia Longa. Measured runups were observed to decay rapidly with distance from the source, typical of tsunami waves generated by limited-area sources such as landslides.
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