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Authors: Aiuppa, A.* 
Federico, C.* 
Giudice, G.* 
Gurrieri, S.* 
Liuzzo, M.* 
Shinohara, H.* 
Favara, R.* 
Valenza, M.* 
Title: Rates of carbon dioxide plume degassing from Mount Etna volcano
Issue Date: 2006
Series/Report no.: / 111 (2006)
DOI: 10.1029/2006JB004307
Keywords: carbon dioxide
Mt. Etna
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
Abstract: We report here on the real-time measurement of CO2 and SO2 concentrations in the near-vent volcanic gas plume of Mount Etna, acquired by the use of a field portable gas analyzer during a series of periodic field surveys on the volcano’s summit. During the investigated period (September 2004 to September 2005), the plume CO2/SO2 ratio ranged from 1.9 to 10.8, with contrasting composition for Northeast and Voragine crater plumes. Scaling the above CO2/SO2 ratios by UV spectroscopy determined SO2 emission rates, we estimate CO2 emission rates from the volcano in the range 0.9–67.5 kt d 1 (average, 9 kt d 1). About 2 kt of CO2 were emitted daily on average during quiescent passive degassing, whereas CO2 emission rates from Etna’s summit were 10–40 times larger during the 2004–2005 effusive event (with a cumulative CO2 release of 3800 kt during the 6 months of the eruption). Such a syneruptive increase, ascribed to the replenishment of the shallow (<6 km) volcanic plumbing system by CO2-rich (0.25 wt %) more primitive magmas, supports the potential of CO2 output rates as key parameters for volcanic hazard assessment.
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