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Authors: Grassa, F.* 
Capasso, G.* 
Favara, R.* 
Inguaggiato, S.* 
Title: Chemical and isotopic composition of waters and dissolved gases in some thermal springs of sicily and adjacent volcanic islands, Italy.
Journal: Pure Appl. Geophys. 
Series/Report no.: 4 / 163 (2006)
Publisher: Birkhauser
Issue Date: 2006
DOI: 10.1007/s00024-006-0043-0
Keywords: Thermal waters,
chemical and isotope composition,
dissolved gases
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.06. Hydrothermal systems 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.07. Radioactivity and isotopes 
Abstract: Hydrochemical (major and some minor constituents), stable isotope (dDH2O and d18OH2O; d13CTDIC total dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved gas composition have been determined on 33 thermal discharges located throughout Sicily (Italy) and its adjacent islands. On the basis of major ion contents, four main water types have been distinguished: (1) a Na-Cl type; (2) a Ca-Mg>Na- SO4-Cl type; (3) a Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and (4) a Na-HCO3 type water. Most waters are meteoric in origin or resulting from mixing between meteoric water and heavy-isotope end members. In some samples, d18O values reflect the effects of equilibrium processes between thermal waters and rocks (positive 18O-shift) or thermal waters and CO2 (negative 18O-shift). Dissolved gas composition indicates the occurrence of gas/ water interaction processes in thermal aquifers. N2/O2 ratios higher than air-saturated water (ASW), suggest the presence of geochemical processes responsible for dissolved oxygen consumption. High CO2 contents (more than 3000 cc/litre STP) dissolved in the thermal waters indicate the presence of an external source of carbon dioxide-rich gas. TDIC content and d13CTDIC show very large ranges from 4.6 to 145.3 mmol/Kg and from )10.0& and 2.8&, respectively. Calculated values indicate the significant contribution from a deep source of carbon dioxide inorganic in origin. Interaction with Mediterranean magmatic CO2 characterized by heavier carbon isotope ratios (d13CCO2 value from )3 to 0& vs V-PDB (CAPASSO et al., 1997, GIAMMANCO et al., 1998; INGUAGGIATO et al., 2000) with respect to MORB value and/ or input of CO2-derived from thermal decomposition of marine carbonates have been inferred.
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