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Authors: Caruso, F.* 
Vinciguerra, S.* 
Latora, V.* 
Rapisarda, A.* 
Malone, S.* 
Title: Multifractal analysis of Mt. St. Helens seismicity as a tool for identifying eruptive activity
Journal: Fractals 
Series/Report no.: 3/4(2006)
Issue Date: 2006
Keywords: Earthquakes Time Distributions
Multifractal Clustering
St. Helens Volcanism
Depth Analysis
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.04. Statistical analysis 
Abstract: We present a multifractal analysis of Mount St. Helens seismic activity during 1980–2002. The seismic time distribution is studied in relation to the eruptive activity, mainly marked by the 1980 major explosive eruptions and by the 1980–1986 dome building eruptions. The spectrum of the generalized fractal dimensions, i.e. Dq versus q, extracted from the data, allows us to identify two main earthquake time distribution patterns. The first one exhibits a multifractal clustering correlated to the intense seismic swarms of the dome building activity. The second one is characterized by an almost constant value of Dq ≈ 1, as for a random uniform distribution. The time evolution of Dq (for q = 0.2), calculated on a fixed number of events window and at different depths, shows that the brittle mechanical response of the shallow layers to rapid magma intrusions, during the eruptive periods, is revealed by sharp changes, acting at a short time scale (order of days), and by the lowest values of Dq (≈ 0.3). Conversely, for deeper earthquakes, characterized by intense seismic swarms, Dq do not show obvious changes during the whole analyzed period, suggesting that the earthquakes, related to the deep magma supply system, are characterized by a minor degree of clustering, which is independent of the eruptive activity.
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