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Authors: Carbone, D.* 
Zuccarello, L.* 
Saccorotti, G.* 
Greco, F.* 
Title: Analysis of simultaneous gravity and tremor anomalies observed during the 2002-2003 Etna eruption
Journal: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 
Series/Report no.: /2455 (2006)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2006
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.055
Keywords: Etna
volcanic tremor
gravity changes
foam layer
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.04. Gravity anomalies 
04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.05. Gravity variations 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the data collected by a large aperture array of broadband seismometers and a continuously recording gravity station during the 2002–2003 eruption of Etna volcano (Italy). Seismic signals recorded during the eruption are dominated by volcanic tremor whose energy spans the 0.5–5 Hz frequency band. On three different occasions (12 November, 19–20 November and 8–9 December 2002), we observed marked increases of the tremor amplitude (up to a factor of 4), which occurred simultaneously with gravity decreases (up to 30 μGal). The three concurrent gravity/tremor anomalies last 6 to 12 hours and terminate with rapid (up to 2 hours) changes, after which the signals return back to their original levels. Based on volcanological observations encompassing the simultaneous anomalies, we infer that the accumulation of a gas cloud at some level in the conduit plexus feeding a new eruptive vent could have acted as a joint source. This study highlights the potential of joint gravity–seismological analyses to both investigate the internal dynamic of a volcano and to improve the confidence of volcanic hazard assessment.
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