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Authors: Vanorio, T.* 
Virieux, J.* 
Zollo, A.* 
Capuano, P.* 
Russo, R.* 
Title: A rock physics and seismic tomography study to characterize the structure of the Campi Flegrei caldera
Issue Date: 2006
Keywords: NONE
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.08. Volcano seismology 
Abstract: The Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera experiences dramatic ground deformations unsurpassed anywhere in the world. The source responsible for this phenomenon is still debated. With the aim of exploring the structure of the caldera as well as the role of hydrothermal fluids on velocity changes, a multidisciplinary approach dealing with 3-D delay-time tomography and rock physics characterization has been followed. Selected seismic data were modeled by using a tomographic method based on an accurate finite-difference travel-time computation which simultaneously inverts P-wave and S-wave first-arrival times for both velocity model parameters and hypocenter locations. The retrieved P-wave and S-wave velocity images as well as the deduced Vp/Vs images were interpreted by using experimental measurements of rock physical properties on CF samples, to take into account steam/water phase transition mechanisms affecting P-wave and S-wave velocities. Also, modelling of petrophysical properties for site-relevant rocks constrains the role of overpressured fluids on velocity. A flat and low Vp/Vs anomaly lies at 4 km depth under the city of Pozzuoli. Earthquakes are located at the top of this anomaly. This anomaly implies the presence of fractured over-pressured gas-bearing formations and excludes the presence of melted rocks. At shallow depth, a high Vp/Vs anomaly located at 1 km suggests the presence of rocks containing fluids in the liquid phase. Finally, maps of the Vp*Vs product show a high Vp*Vs horse-shoe shaped anomaly located at 2 km depth. It is consistent with gravity data and well data and might constitute the on-land remainder of the caldera rim, detected below sea level by tomography using active source seismic data. For a more exhaustive description of the utilized methodologies, of synthetic tests for spatial resolution and uncertainty assessment and, the interpretation of results, the reader may refer to the paper Vanorio et al. (2005).
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