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Authors: Falsaperla, S.* 
Alparone, S.* 
D'Amico, S.* 
Di Grazia, G.* 
Ferrari, F.* 
Langer, H.* 
Sgroi, T.* 
Spampinato, S.* 
Title: Volcanic tremor at Mt. Etna, Italy, preceding and accompanying the eruption of July-August, 2001
Issue Date: Nov-2005
DOI: 10.1007/s00024-005-2710-y
Keywords: Etna
volcanic tremor
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The July 17 – August 9, 2001 flank eruption of Mt. Etna was preceded and accompanied by remarkable changes in volcanic tremor. Based on the records of stations belonging to the permanent seismic network deployed on the volcano, we analyze amplitude and frequency content of the seismic signal. We find considerable changes in the volcanic tremor which mark the transition to different styles of eruptive activity, e.g., lava fountains, phreatomagmatic activity, Strombolian explosions. In particular, the frequency content of the signal decreases from 5 Hz to 3 Hz at our reference station ETF during episodes of lava fountains, and further decreases at about 2 Hz throughout phases of intense lava emission. The frequency content and the ratios of the signal amplitude allow us to distinguish three seismic sources, i.e., the peripheral dike which fed the eruption, the reservoir which fed the lava fountains, and the central conduit. Based on the analysis of the amplitude decay of the signal, we highlight the migration of the dike from a depth of ca. 5 km to about 1 km between July 10 and 12. After the onset of the effusive phase, the distribution of the amplitude decay at our stations can be interpreted as the overall result of sources located within the first half kilometer from the surface. Although on a qualitative basis, our findings shed some light on the complex feeding system of Mt. Etna, and integrate other volcanological and geophysical studies which tackle the problem of magma replenishment for the July–August, 2001 flank eruption. We conclude that volcanic tremor is fundamental in monitoring Mt. Etna, not only as a marker of the different sources which act within the volcano edifice, but also of the diverse styles of eruptive activity.
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