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Authors: Ganci, Gaetana* 
Bilotta, Giuseppe* 
Zuccarello, Francesco* 
Calvari, Sonia* 
Cappello, Annalisa* 
Title: A Multi-Sensor Satellite Approach to Characterize the Volcanic Deposits Emitted during Etna’s Lava Fountaining: The 2020–2022 Study Case
Journal: Remote Sensing 
Series/Report no.: /15 (2023)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 7-Feb-2023
DOI: 10.3390/rs15040916
Keywords: thermal infrared satellite imagery
effusion rate curves
volcanic hazards
Etna volcano
Lava Fountaining
Remote sensing
Subject Classification04.08. Volcanology 
Abstract: Between December 2020 and February 2022, the South East Crater of Etna has been the source of numerous eruptions, mostly characterized by the emission of lava fountains, pyroclastic material and short-lasting lava flows. Here we estimate the volume and distribution of the lava deposits by elaborating multi-source satellite imagery. SEVIRI data have been elaborated using CL-HOTSAT to estimate the lava volume emitted during each event and calculate the cumulative volume; Pléiades and WorldView-1 data have been used to derive Digital Surface Models, whose differences provide thickness distributions and hence volumes of the volcanic deposits. We find a good agreement, with the total average lava volume obtained by SEVIRI reaching 73.2 × 106 m3 and the one from optical data amounting to 67.7 × 106 m3. This proves the robustness of both techniques and the accuracy of the volume estimates, which provide important information on the lava flooding history and evolution of the volcano.
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