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Authors: Matamales Andreu, Rafel* 
Mujal, Eudald* 
Dinarès Turell, Jaume* 
Kustatscher, Evelyn* 
Roghi, Guido* 
Oms, Oriol* 
Galobart, Àngel* 
Fortuny, Josep* 
Title: Early–middle Permian ecosystems of equatorial Pangaea: Integrated multi-stratigraphic and palaeontological review of the Permian of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean)
Journal: Earth-Science Reviews 
Series/Report no.: /228 (2022)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2022.103948
Abstract: The Cisuralian–Guadalupian (early–middle Permian) was a period of climate transition between the Carboniferous icehouse conditions to the latest Permian–Early Triassic hothouse. The landmasses had coalesced in the supercontinent Pangaea and the climate was progressively becoming more arid, especially in a belt over the palaeoequator. The deposits of present-day Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) were located in those low palaeolatitudes, in the western margin of the Tethys Sea, and correspond to alluvial systems with meandering rivers. The present study divides the stratigraphic succession into three main units, formally described herein as the Bec de s’Àguila Formation, Port des Canonge Formation and Pedra de s’Ase Formation. Based on an exhaustive review of the literature and new magneto- and biostratigraphic data, the sequence has been dated between the early and middle Permian (Artinskian–Wordian). Moreover, the detailed study of the fossils has provided a complete account of the denizens of those ecosystems. Tetrapod tracks occur abundantly in the Port des Canonge Formation, with morphotypes attributed to moradisaurine captorhinid eureptiles, araeoscelidian diapsids/non-varanodontine varanopids, possible pareiasauromorph parareptiles, “pelycosaur”-grade synapsids and indeterminate synapsids. Spores and pollen grains from the Pedra de s’Ase Formation indicate an overall dominance of conifers, accompanied by sphenophytes, ferns and seed ferns. Overall, apart from providing the first detailed interpretation of the ecosystems of the Permian of Mallorca, these new data have made it possible to improve the characterisation of the Permian–Triassic tectonosedimentary cycle in the Balearic Islands, which contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the western peri-Tethys ecosystems.
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