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Authors: Giudicepietro, Flora* 
Calvari, Sonia* 
D'Auria, Luca* 
Di Traglia, Federico* 
Layer, Lukas* 
Macedonio, Giovanni* 
Caputo, Teresa* 
De Cesare, Walter* 
Ganci, Gaetana* 
Martini, Marcello* 
Orazi, Massimo* 
Peluso, Rosario* 
Scarpato, Giovanni* 
Spina, Laura* 
Nolesini, Teresa* 
Casagli, Nicola* 
Tramelli, Anna* 
Esposito, Antonietta M.* 
Title: Changes in the Eruptive Style of Stromboli Volcano before the 2019 Paroxysmal Phase Discovered through SOM Clustering of Seismo-Acoustic Features Compared with Camera Images and GBInSAR Data
Journal: Remote Sensing 
Series/Report no.: /14(2022)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 6-Mar-2022
DOI: 10.3390/rs14051287
Keywords: eruption precursors
Stromboli volcano
neural networks
self-organizing map
seismo-acoustic signals
volcano monitoring
ground-based visible and thermal imagery
ground deformation
Subject Classification04.08. Volcanology 
Abstract: Two paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli on July 3 and August 28, 2019, the first of which caused the death of a young tourist. After the first paroxysm an effusive activity began from the summit vents and affected the NW flank of the island for the entire period between the two paroxysms. We carried out an unsupervised analysis of seismic and infrasonic data of Strombolian explosions over 10 months (15 November 2018–15 September 2019) using a Self- Organizing Map (SOM) neural network to recognize changes in the eruptive patterns of Stromboli that preceded the paroxysms. We used a dataset of 14,289 events. The SOM analysis identified three main clusters that showed different occurrences with time indicating a clear change in Stromboli’s eruptive style before the paroxysm of 3 July 2019. We compared the main clusters with the recordings of the fixed monitoring cameras and with the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements, and found that the clusters are associated with different types of Strombolian explosions and different deformation patterns of the summit area. Our findings provide new insights into Strombolian eruptive mechanisms and new perspectives to improve the monitoring of Stromboli and other open conduit volcanoes.
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