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Authors: Minarelli, Luca* 
Amoroso, Sara* 
Civico, Riccardo* 
De Martini, Paolo Marco* 
Lugli, Stefano* 
Martelli, Luca* 
Molisso, Flavia* 
Rollins, Kyle* 
Salocchi, Aura Cecilia* 
Stefani, Marco* 
Cultrera, Giovanna* 
Milana, Giuliano* 
Fontana, Daniela* 
Title: Liquefied sites of the 2012 Emilia earthquake: a comprehensive database of the geological and geotechnical features (Quaternary alluvial Po plain, Italy)
Journal: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 
Series/Report no.: /20 (2022)
Publisher: Springer
Issue Date: 2022
DOI: 10.1007/s10518-022-01338-7
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive geological and geotechnical study of the whole area affected by liquefaction following the 2012 Emilia earthquakes, including all the available information from the field reconnaissance surveys, in situ tests, and laboratory analyses. The compilation was performed at 120 liquefied sites to verify and validate the reliability of liquefaction charts in alluvial sediments, and to assess liquefaction induced by the 2012 seismic sequence in the Emilia plain. The results reveal a wide range of grain sizes (from clean sands to sandy silts) and compositional characteristics (quartz-rich to litharenitic) in the 2012 ejecta, and show a strong relationship between the liquefaction and stratigraphic architecture of the subsurface. The availability of in situ tests at the liquefied sites makes it possible to verify and validate the reliability of the liquefaction charts in alluvial sediments with respect to the real observations. For the analyzed Emilia case studies, the use of non-liquefiable crust provides better estimations of the liquefaction manifestations when coupled with the thickness of the liquefiable layer rather than with the liquefaction potential index. Altogether, this work makes available to the international scientific community a consistent liquefaction database for in-depth earthquake studies
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