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Authors: Zuccarello, Francesco* 
Bilotta, Giuseppe* 
Cappello, Annalisa* 
Ganci, Gaetana* 
Title: Effusion Rates on Mt. Etna and Their Influence on Lava Flow Hazard Assessment
Journal: Remote Sensing 
Series/Report no.: /14 (2022)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2022
DOI: 10.3390/rs14061366
Abstract: The rate at which lava is discharged plays a key role in controlling the distance covered by lava flows from eruptive vents. We investigate the available time-averaged discharge rates (TADRs) estimated for recent flank eruptions at Mt. Etna volcano (Italy), in order to define a possible generalized effusion rate trend which is consistent with observed real data. Our analysis indicates a rapid waxing phase in which effusion rate peaks occur for between 0.5 and 29% of the total eruption time, followed by a progressive decrease in the waning phase. Three generalized curves are built by calculating the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles values associated with the occurrence of effusion peaks, and with the slope variations of descending curves in the waning phase. The obtained curves are used as an input for the GPUFLOW model in order to perform numerical simulations of the lava flows paths on inclined planes, and are compared with those generated by using effusion rate curves with a bell-shaped time-distribution. Our tests show how these characteristic curves could impact single-vent scenarios, as well as short- and long-term hazard maps, with maximum variations of up to 40% for a specific category of eruptive events
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