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Authors: Diliberto, Iole Serena* 
Gennaro, Emanuela* 
Title: The Thermal Imbalances Recorded at the NE Rift during the 2012 Explosive Activity at the South East Cone (Mt. Etna, Italy)
Journal: Applied Sciences 
Series/Report no.: /12 (2022)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 28-Apr-2022
DOI: 10.3390/ app12094471
Keywords: thermal monitoring
diffuse outgassing
volcanic activity
transition periods
steam convection
energy release
Subject Classification04.08. Volcanology 
Abstract: Mild thermal anomalies are sensitive to changes in the advection processes in a volcanic system. A mild thermal anomaly, near the top of the North-East Rift of Mt. Etna (Italy), has been monitored from January 2010 to September 2012 by means of four temperature sensors buried in the shallow ground. The pulses of the convective circulation have been tracked and the diffuse heat flux has been evaluated. The positive pulses of the convective front reflected the local increases of volcanic degassing; conversely, the negative pulses showed the contraction of the convective front emerging through the North-East Rift. The steam condensation depth fluctuated below the monitoring site, from depths of a couple of meters to more than 30 meters, while the New South-East crater was erupting. The data hourly recorded, relative to the 2012 eruptive period, were compared to the radiant energy released by the paroxysms. We registered a dramatic decrease in the diffuse heat flux several hours before the onset of the two most energetic paroxysms (12 and 23 April). Thereafter, the convective front (the steam condensation depth) showed many negative pulses, reaching the deepest recorded levels. Thermal transients could be one of the early signals, possibly heralding transitions in the dynamic equilibrium conditions.
Description: Data availability: The source data (ground temperature measurements recorded -hourly- from 2009 to 2012) are submitted to PANGAEA — PDI31617.
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