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Authors: Risica, Gilda* 
Di Roberto, Alessio* 
Speranza, Fabio* 
Del Carlo, Paola* 
Pompilio, Massimo* 
Meletlidis, Stavros* 
Todrani, Alessandro* 
Title: Reconstruction of the subaerial Holocene volcanic activity through paleomagnetic and 14C dating methods: El Hierro (Canary Islands)
Journal: Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 
Series/Report no.: /425 (2022)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 11-Mar-2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2022.107526
Keywords: Paleomagnetism
El Hierro
Subject Classification04.05. Geomagnetism 
04.08. Volcanology 
Abstract: Volcanic hazard assessment relies on the accurate knowledge of the eruptive style and recurrence of volcanic eruptions in the past. At El Hierro (Canary Islands) historical and prehistorical records are still poorly defined, and although the island was the location of one of the most recent eruptions (La Restinga, 2011 CE) of the Canarian archipelago, the recent subaerial volcanism is still poorly studied. Information about the age of Holocene volcanic activity as well as the stratigraphy of the deposits is scarce: few eruptions are dated so far, whereas the others are classified as pre-or Holocene events considering lava flow characteristics along the coast. Here, we report on the dating of eleven (M˜na Chamuscada, M˜na del Tesoro, Orchilla, Las Calcosas, M˜na Negra, Lomo Negro, Below Lomo Negro, Cuchillo del Roque, Malpaso Member, and M˜na del Guanche) Holocene subaerial eruptions, distributed along the three rift zones, combining paleomagnetic and 14C methods. We also provide geochemical analyses for nine of them. Results indicate that M˜na Chamuscada and M˜na del Tesoro occurred more recently than previously considered, setting them within the last two thousand years. Conversely, paleomagnetic and 14C ages found for Lomo Negro eruption are consistent with literature data (Villasante- Marcos and Pav´on-Carrasco, 2014) and constrain the occurrence of this event in the XVI century CE. Finally, for Malpaso Member deposits, the two 14C datings obtained by charcoals found below and above the trachytic layer set the eruption during the Holocene epoch, between ~7300 BCE and ~4700 BCE. For the other eruptions, in two cases (Orchilla and Las Calcosas) many possible time windows during the last 14 ka have been found, whereas a few possible ages have been obtained for the others. On the whole, the resulting chronological reconstruction of the recent activity of El Hierro indicates that eruptions occurred unevenly along the three main rifts, with nine eruptions in the WNW rift, six in the NE rift, and four in the SSE rift. We document at least two periods characterized by high eruptive frequency: an old one, between 8000 BCE and 1000 BCE, with eight eruptions, three of which characterized by more evolved compositions (phonotephrite and trachyte), and a recent one, between 1000 BCE and present day, with at least seven eruptions, mainly showing basanite compositions. The new data yield a significant improvement of Holocene eruption chronology, thus are instrumental for a correct evaluation of the volcanic hazard at El Hierro.
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