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Authors: Liang, Yu‐Chiao* 
Frankignoul, Claude* 
Kwon, Young‐Oh* 
Gastineau, Guillaume* 
Manzini, Elisa* 
Danabasoglu, Gokhan* 
Suo, Lingling* 
Yeager, Stephen* 
Gao, Yongqi* 
Attema, Jisk* 
Cherchi, Annalisa* 
Ghosh, Rohit* 
Matei, Daniela* 
Mecking, Jennifer V.* 
Tian, Tian* 
Zhang, Ying* 
Title: Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice on Cold Season Atmospheric Variability and Trends Estimated from Observations and a Multi-model Large Ensemble
Journal: Journal of Climate 
Series/Report no.: 20/34 (2021)
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2021
DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0578.1
Keywords: Arctic
Sea ice
Atmospheric circulation
Climate models
Subject Classification01.01. Atmosphere 
Abstract: To examine the atmospheric responses to Arctic sea ice variability in the Northern Hemisphere cold season (from October to the following March), this study uses a coordinated set of large-ensemble experiments of nine atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced with observed daily varying sea ice, sea surface temperature, and radiative forcings prescribed during the 1979–2014 period, together with a parallel set of experiments where Arctic sea ice is substituted by its climatology. The simulations of the former set reproduce the near-surface temperature trends in reanalysis data, with similar amplitude, and their multimodel ensemble mean (MMEM) shows decreasing sea level pressure over much of the polar cap and Eurasia in boreal autumn. The MMEM difference between the two experiments allows isolating the effects of Arctic sea ice loss, which explain a large portion of the Arctic warming trends in the lower troposphere and drive a small but statistically significant weakening of the wintertime Arctic Oscillation. The observed interannual covariability between sea ice extent in the Barents–Kara Seas and lagged atmospheric circulation is distinguished from the effects of confounding factors based on multiple regression, and quantitatively compared to the covariability in MMEMs. The interannual sea ice decline followed by a negative North Atlantic Oscillation–like anomaly found in observations is also seen in the MMEM differences, with consistent spatial structure but much smaller amplitude. This result suggests that the sea ice impacts on trends and interannual atmospheric variability simulated by AGCMs could be underestimated, but caution is needed because internal atmospheric variability may have affected the observed relationship.
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