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Authors: Neglia, Francesco* 
Sulpizio, Roberto* 
Dioguardi, Fabio* 
Capra, Lucia* 
Sarocchi, Damiano* 
Title: Shallow-water models for volcanic granular flows: A review of strengths and weaknesses of TITAN2D and FLO2D numerical codes
Journal: Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 
Series/Report no.: /410 (2021)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.107146
Abstract: The behaviour of dry and wet volcanic granular flows is one of the main research topics in present day geophysics and volcanology. It involves various disciplines (e.g. sedimentology, geophysics, fluid dynamics) and investigation techniques (e.g. field studies, laboratory experiments, computational fluid dynamics). The vast interest is justified by the complex nature of these flows and their very dangerous nature that threaten millions of people around the world. In the last decade, computational fluid dynamics has become one of the main instruments used to reproduce past events of volcanic granular flows or to predict their behaviour and potential hazard. In this study, we tested two of the most used codes for simulating volcanic granular flows, TITAN2D and FLO2D, against well studied natural cases (the 1998 wet granular flows in the Sarno area and the 2005 block and ash flows at Colima volcano) and large-scale experiments on granular flows. Comparison between simulated parameters and real ones were carried out in order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the two numerical codes. TITAN2D results showed how the basal friction angle is fundamental to control numerical simulations and its dependence on the topographic complexities, DEM resolution and slope-angle ratio. Simulation of large scale experiments offered a good relationship between slope angle ratio at break in slope and basal friction angle, which is useful for application to small drainage basins with not complex channel morphology. FLO2D suffers the lack of rheometric parameters for volcaniclastic material, but is less sensitive of DEM resolution with respect to TITAN2D.
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