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Authors: Agnelli, Marco* 
Grandia, Fidel* 
Credoz, Anthony* 
Gasparini, Andrea* 
Bruno, Jordi* 
Title: Use of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) as an early detection tool of low-intensity leakage from CO2storage
Journal: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 
Series/Report no.: /4 (2014)
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 6-Jan-2014
DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1383
Keywords: Campo de Calatrava
CO2 storage and leakage
metal leakage
metal transport
trace metals
Subject Classification03.04. Chemical and biological 
05.04. Instrumentation and techniques of general interest 
Abstract: Diffusive gradients in thin fi lms (DGT) have been tested in CO2-rich, metal-bearing fl uids from springs in the Campo de Calatrava region in Central Spain, to assess their applicability as a monitoring tool in onshore CO2 storage projects. These fi lms are capable of adsorbing metals and recording changes in their concentration in water, sediments, and soils. Considering that CO2 dissolution promotes metal solubilization and transport, the use of these fi lms could be valuable as a monitoring tool of early leakage. A number of DGT have been deployed in selected springs with constant metal concentration. The studied waters show high concentrations of Fe, as high as 1 × 104 μg·L–1, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, and Mn. Comparing re-calculated metal concentration in DGT with metal water concentration, two different metal behaviors are observed: (i) metals with sorption consistent with the metal concentration (i.e. plotting close to the 1:1 line in a [Me]DGT: [Me]water plot), and (ii) metals with non–linear sorption, with some data showing metal enrichment in DGT compared with the concentration in water. Metals in the fi rst group include Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and U, and metals in the second group are Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Al. From this research, it is concluded that the metals in the fi rst group can be used to monitor potential leakage by using DGT, providing effective leakage detection even considering low variations of concentrations, episodic metal release, and reducing costs compared with conventional, periodic water sampling.
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