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Authors: Diliberto, Iole Serena* 
Cangemi, Marianna* 
Gagliano, Antonina Lisa* 
Inguaggiato, Salvatore* 
Jacome Paz, Mariana Patricia* 
Madonia, Paolo* 
Mazot, Agnes* 
Pedone, Maria* 
Pisciotta, Antonino* 
Title: Volcanic Gas Hazard Assessment in the Baia di Levante Area (Vulcano Island, Italy) Inferred by Geochemical Investigation of Passive Fluid Degassing
Journal: Geosciences 
Series/Report no.: /11 (2021)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 21-Nov-2021
DOI: 10.3390/geosciences11110478
Keywords: gas hazard
environmental pollution
passive degassing
carbon dioxide
hydrogen sulphide
thermal mapping
Abstract: In a volcanic area, the composition of air is influenced by the interaction between fluids generated from many different environments (magmatic, hydrothermal, meteoric, and marine). Any physical and chemical variation in one of these subsystems is able to modify the outgassing dynamic. The increase of natural gas hazard, related to the presence of unhealthy components in air, may depend on temporary changes both in the pressure and chemical gradients that generate transient fluxes of gases and can have many different causes. Sometimes, the content of unhealthy gases approaches unexpected limits, without clear warning. In this case, an altered composition of the air can be only revealed after accurate sampling procedures and laboratory analysis. The investigations presented here are a starting point to response to the demand for a new monitoring program in the touristic area of Baia di Levante at Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy). Three multiparametric geochemical surveys were carried in the touristic area of Baia di Levante at Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy) in 2011, 2014, and 2015. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are the main undesired components, usually present at the local scale. Anomalous CO2 and H2S outputs from soil and submarine bubbling vents were identified; the thermal anomaly of the ground was mapped; atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and H2S were measured in the air 30 cm above the ground surface. Atmospheric concentrations above the suggested limits for the wellbeing of human health were retrieved in open areas where tourists stay and where CO2 can accumulate under absence of wind.
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