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Authors: Casula, Giuseppe* 
Fais, Silvana* 
Cuccuru, Francesco* 
Bianchi, Maria Giovanna* 
Ligas, Paola* 
Sitzia, Alessandro* 
Title: Decay Detection in an Ancient Column with Combined Close-Range Photogrammetry (CRP) and Ultrasonic Tomography
Journal: Minerals 
Series/Report no.: 10/11 (2021)
Publisher: MDPI - Basel
Issue Date: 11-Oct-2021
DOI: 10.3390/min11101114
Keywords: close range photogrammetry
3D ultrasonic tomography
petrographic analyses
Subject Classification05.04. Instrumentation and techniques of general interest 
Abstract: Abstract: This study presents the integrated application of a few non-destructive techniques, i.e., Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP), and low frequency (24 kHz) ultrasonic tomography complemented by petrographical analysis. The aim here is to assess the conservation state of a Carrara marble column in the Basilica of San Saturnino, which is part of a V-VI century Palaeo Christian complex in the city of Cagliari (Italy). The high resolution 3D modelling of the studied artifact was computed starting from the integration of proximal sensing techniques, such as CRP based on the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, which provided information on the geometrical anomalies and reflectivity of the investigated marble column surface. The inner parts of the studied body were inspected successfully in a non-invasive way by computing the velocity pattern of the ultrasonic signal through the investigated materials, using 3D ultrasonic tomography. The latter was optimally designed based on the 3D CRP analysis and the locations of the source and receiver points were detected as accurately as possible. The integrated application of in situ CRP and ultrasonic techniques provided a full 3D high resolution model of the investigated artifact, which made it possible to evaluate the material characteristics and its degradation state, affecting mainly the shallower parts of the column. The 3D visualisation improves the efficiency, accuracy, and completeness of the interpretative process of data of a different nature in quite easily understood displays, as well as the communication between different technicians.
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