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Authors: Sandoval-Velasquez, Andres* 
Rizzo, Andrea Luca* 
Aiuppa, Alessandro* 
Remigi, Samantha* 
Padron, Eleazar* 
Perez, Nemesio M.* 
Frezzotti, Maria Luce* 
Title: Recycled crustal carbon in the depleted mantle source of El Hierro volcano, Canary Islands
Journal: Lithos 
Series/Report no.: /400-401 (2021)
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: Aug-2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2021.106414
Keywords: Canary Islands
El Hierro
Mantle xenoliths
Fluid inclusions
Recycled carbon
noble gases
Subject Classification04.08. Volcanology 
04.01. Earth Interior 
Abstract: The Canary Islands, in the eastern Atlantic, are among the most enigmatic Oceanic Island provinces on Earth, as the mantle source feeding its volcanism exhibits wide spatial heterogeneity and a multiplicity of sources. Multiisotope whole-rock studies have long revealed the presence of a recycled oceanic crust/lithosphere component in the mantle source. However, noble gas systematics have been more challenging to interpret, and the available carbon isotope data is limited and cannot support/dismiss this interpretation. Here, we present the very first isotopic characterisation of CO2 and noble gases (He-Ne-Ar) in fluid inclusions (FI) in minerals hosted in mantle xenoliths from El Hierro, the youngest and westernmost island of the Canary volcanic archipelago. Six fresh xenoliths from El Julan cliff valley were analysed (3 spinel lherzolites and 3 spinel harzburgites). We find carbon isotopic compositions of CO2 in FI (δ13C) ranging from 􀀀 2.38 to 􀀀 1.23‰ in pyroxenes and from 􀀀 0.19 to +0.96‰ in olivines. These unusually positive δ13C values, well above the typical mantle range (􀀀 8‰ < δ13C < 􀀀 4‰), prove, for the first time, the presence of a recycled crustal carbon component in the local source mantle. We interpret this 13C-rich component as inherited from a mantle metasomatism event driven by fluids carrying carbon from C. In contrast, our El Hierro xenoliths identify a depleted mantle-like He signature, with an average Rc/Ra ratio (3He/4He normalised to air ratio and corrected for atmospheric contamination) of 7.45 ± 0.26 Ra. The involvement of depleted mantle-like fluids, variably admixed with air-derived components (possibly recycled via paleo-subduction event(s)), is corroborated by Ne-Ar isotopic compositions. The depleted mantle-like He signature suggests instead the involvement of a primordial He source in the local lithospheric mantle and indicates a marginal role played by past subduction events in modifying the local mantle He budget. When put in the context of previous 3He/4He measurements in FI and surface gases along the Canary archipelago, our results confirm an overall west-to-east decrease of Rc/Ra ratios, which may be interpreted as due to increasing contributions from the African sub-continental mantle, the addition of radiogenic 4He during magma migration in the oceanic crust (whose thickness increases eastward) and/or magma ageing.
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