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Authors: Falanga, Mariarosaria* 
Cusano, Paola* 
De Lauro, Enza* 
Petrosino, Simona* 
Title: Picking up the hydrothermal whisper at Ischia Island in the Covid-19 lockdown quiet
Journal: Scientific Reports 
Series/Report no.: /11 (2021)
Publisher: Nature PG
Issue Date: 23-Apr-2021
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-88266-9
Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the seismic noise at Ischia Island (Italy) with the objective of detecting the hydrothermal source signals taking advantage of the Covid-19 quiescence due to lockdown (strong reduction of anthropogenic noise). We compare the characteristics of the background noise in pre-, during and post-lockdown in terms of spectral content, energy release (RMS) and statistical moments. The continuous noise is decomposed into two independent signals in the 1-2 Hz and 2-4 Hz frequency bands, becoming sharpened around 1 Hz and 3 Hz respectively in lockdown. We propose a conceptual model according to which a dendritic system of fluid-permeated fractures plays as neighbour closed organ pipes, for which the fundamental mode provides the persistent whisper and the first higher mode is activated in concomitance with energy increases. By assuming reasonable values for the sound speed in low vapor-liquid mass fraction for a two-phase fluid and considering temperatures and pressures of the shallow aquifer fed by sea, meteoric and deep hydrothermal fluids, we estimate pipe lengths in the range 200-300 m. In this scheme, Ischia organ-like system can play both continuous whisper and transients, depending on the energy variations sourced by pressure fluctuations in the hydrothermal fluids.
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