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Authors: Li Vigni, Lorenza* 
Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki* 
Calabrese, Sergio* 
Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos* 
Parello, Francesco* 
Brugnone, Filippo* 
D'Alessandro, Walter* 
Title: Geochemical characterisation of the thermo-mineral waters of Greece
Journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health 
Series/Report no.: /44 (2022)
Publisher: Springer
Issue Date: 2022
DOI: 10.1007/s10653-021-01001-1
Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry
Stable isotopes
Carbon dioxide
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere
03.04. Chemical and biological
Abstract: Geothermal areas of Greece are located in regions affected by recent volcanism and in continental basins characterised by elevated heat flow. Many of them are found along the coast and thus, water is often saline due to marine intrusion. In the current study, we present about 300 unpublished and literature data from thermal and cold mineral waters collected along Greece. Samples were analysed for major ions, Li, SiO2 and isotopes in water. Measured temperatures range from 6.5 to 98°C, pH from 1.96 to 11.98, whilst Total Dissolved Solutes (TDS) from 0.22 to 51 g/L. Waters were subdivided into four main groups: i) thermal; ii) cold; iii) acidic (pH <5) and iv) hyperalkaline (pH >11). On statistical basis, the thermal waters were subdivided into subgroups according to both their temperature [warm (<29 °C), hypothermal (29-48 °C), thermal (48-75 °C) and hyperthermal (>75 °C)] and TDS [low salinity (<4 g/L), brackish (4-30 g/L) and saline (>30 g/L)]. Cold waters were subdivided basing on their pCO2 [low (<0.05 atm), medium (0.05-0.85 atm) and high (>0.85 atm)]. δ18O-H2O ranges from -12.7 to +2.7 ‰ vs. SMOW, while δ2H-H2O from -91 to +12 ‰ vs. SMOW being generally comprised between the Global Meteoric Water Line and the East Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line. Positive δ18O shifts with respect to the former are mostly related to mixing with seawater, while only for a few samples they point to high-temperature water-rock interaction processes. Only a few thermal waters gave reliable geothermometric estimates, suggesting reservoir temperatures between 80 and 260 °C.
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