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Authors: Parracino, Stefano* 
Santoro, Simone* 
Fiorani, Luca* 
Nuvoli, Marcello* 
Maio, Giovanni* 
Aiuppa, Alessandro* 
Title: The BrIdge voLcanic LIdar—BILLI: A Review of Data Collection and Processing Techniques in the Italian Most Hazardous Volcanic Areas
Journal: Applied Sciences 
Series/Report no.: /10(2020)
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2020
DOI: 10.3390/app10186402
Abstract: Volcanologists have demonstrated that carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are precursors of volcanic eruptions. Controlling volcanic gases and, in particular, the CO2 flux, is technically challenging, but we can retrieve useful information from magmatic/geological process studies for the mitigation of volcanic hazards including air traffic security. Existing techniques used to probe volcanic gas fluxes have severe limitations such as the requirement of near-vent in situ measurements, which is unsafe for operators and deleterious for equipment. In order to overcome these limitations, a novel range-resolved DIAL-Lidar (Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging) has been developed as part of the ERC (European Research Council) Project “BRIDGE”, for sensitive, remote, and safe real-time CO2 observations. Here, we report on data collection, processing techniques, and the most significant findings of the experimental campaigns carried out at the most hazardous volcanic areas in Italy: Pozzuoli Solfatara (Phlegraen Fields), Stromboli, and Mt. Etna. The BrIdge voLcanic LIdar—BILLI has successfully obtained accurate measurements of in-plume CO2 concentration and flux. In addition, wind velocity has also been retrieved. It has been shown that the measurements of CO2 concentration performed by BILLI are comparable to those carried out by volcanologists with other standard techniques, heralding a new era in the observation of long-term volcanic gases.
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