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Authors: Amoroso, Sara* 
Rollins, Kyle M.* 
Andersen, Paul* 
Gottardi, Guido* 
Tonni, Laura* 
García Martínez, Maria F* 
Wissmann, Kord* 
Minarelli, Luca* 
Comina, Cesare* 
Fontana, Daniela* 
De Martini, Paolo Marco* 
Monaco, Paola* 
Pesci, Arianna* 
Sapia, Vincenzo* 
Vassallo, Maurizio* 
Anzidei, Marco* 
Carpena, Andrea* 
Cinti, Francesca Romana* 
Civico, Riccardo* 
Coco, Igino* 
Conforti, Dario* 
Doumaz, Fawzi* 
Giannattasio, Fabio* 
Di Giulio, Giuseppe* 
Foti, Sebastiano* 
Loddo, Fabiana* 
Lugli, Stefano* 
Manuel, Maria R.* 
Marchetti, Diego* 
Mariotti, Mauro* 
Materni, Valerio* 
Metcalfe, Brian* 
Milana, Giuliano* 
Pantosti, Daniela* 
Pesce, Antonio* 
Salocchi, Aura Cecilia* 
Smedile, Alessandra* 
Stefani, Marco* 
Tarabusi, Gabriele* 
Teza, Giordano* 
Title: Blast-induced liquefaction in silty sands for full-scale testing of ground improvement methods: Insights from a multidisciplinary study
Journal: Engineering Geology 
Series/Report no.: /265 (2020)
Issue Date: 2020
DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.105437
Abstract: In the engineering geology field increased attention has been posed in recent years to potential liquefaction mitigation interventions in susceptible sand formations. In silty sands this is a major challenge because, as the fines content increases, vibratory methods for densification become progressively less effective. An alternative mitigation technique can be the installation of Rammed Aggregate Pier® (RAP) columns that can increase the resistance of the soil, accounting for its lateral stress increase and for the stiffness increase from soil and RAP composite response. To investigate the influence of these factors on liquefaction resistance, full-scale blast tests were performed at a silty sand site in Bondeno (Ferrara, Italy) where liquefaction was observed after the 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake. A multidisciplinary team of forty researchers carried out devoted experimental activities aimed at better understanding the liquefaction process at the field scale and the effectiveness of the treatment using inter-related methods. Both natural and improved areas were investigated by in-situ tests and later subjected to controlled blasting. The blast tests were monitored with geotechnical and geophysical instrumentation, topographical surveying and geological analyses on the sand boils. Results showed the RAP effectiveness due to the improvement of soil properties within the liquefiable layer and a consequent reduction of the blast-induced liquefaction settlements, likely due to soil densification and increased lateral stress. The applied multidisciplinary approach adopted for the study allowed better understanding of the mechanism involved in the liquefaction mitigation intervention and provided a better overall evaluation of mitigation effectiveness
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