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Authors: Riva, R. E. M.* 
Borghi, Alessandra* 
Aoudia, Abdelkrim* 
Barzaghi, Riccardo* 
Sabadini, Roberto* 
Panza, G. F.* 
Title: Viscoelastic relaxation and long-lasting after-slip following the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) earthquakes
Issue Date: 2007
Series/Report no.: /169 (2007)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03315.x
Keywords: crustal deformation
Abstract: We combine Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements with forward modelling of vis- coelastic relaxation and after-slip to study the post-seismic deformation of the 1997 Umbria- Marche (Central Apennines) moderate shallow earthquake sequence. Campaign GPS mea- surements spanning the time period 1999–2003 are depicting a clear post-seismic deformation signal. Our results favour a normal faulting rupture model where most of the slip is located in the lower part of the seismogenic upper crust, consistent with the rupture models obtained from the inversion of strong motion data. The preferred rheological model, obtained from viscoelastic relaxation modelling, consists of an elastic upper crust, underlain by a transition zone with a viscosity of 10 18 Pa s, while the rheology of deeper layers is not relevant for the observed time-span. Shallow fault creep and after-slip at the base of the seismogenic upper crust are the first order processes behind the observed post-seismic deformation. The deep after-slip, below the fault zone at about 8 km depth, acting as a basal shear through localized time-dependent deformation, identifies a rheological discontinuity decoupling the seismogenic upper crust from the low-viscosity transition zone.
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