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Authors: Vittuari, Luca* 
Tini, Maria Alessandra* 
Sarti, Pierguido* 
Serantoni, Eugenio* 
Borghi, Alessandra* 
Negusini, Monia* 
Guillaume, Sébastien* 
Title: A Comparative Study of the Applied Methods for Estimating Deflection of the Vertical in Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements
Issue Date: 20-Apr-2016
Series/Report no.: /16 (2016)
DOI: 10.3390/s16040565
Keywords: deflection of the vertical
tie vectors
Abstract: This paper compares three different methods capable of estimating the deflection of the vertical (DoV): one is based on the joint use of high precision spirit leveling and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), a second uses astro-geodetic measurements and the third gravimetric geoid models. The working data sets refer to the geodetic International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) co-location sites of Medicina (Northern, Italy) and Noto (Sicily), these latter being excellent test beds for our investigations. The measurements were planned and realized to estimate the DoV with a level of precision comparable to the angular accuracy achievable in high precision network measured by modern high-end total stations. The three methods are in excellent agreement, with an operational supremacy of the astro-geodetic method, being faster and more precise than the others. The method that combines leveling and GNSS has slightly larger standard deviations; although well within the 1 arcsec level, which was assumed as threshold. Finally, the geoid model based method, whose 2.5 arcsec standard deviations exceed this threshold, is also statistically consistent with the others and should be used to determine the DoV components where local ad hoc measurements are lacking.
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