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Authors: Fais, Silvana* 
Cuccuru, Francesco* 
Casula, Giuseppe* 
Bianchi, Maria Giovanna* 
Ligas, Paola* 
Title: Characterization of Rock Samples by a High-Resolution Multi-Technique Non-Invasive Approach
Journal: Minerals 
Series/Report no.: 11/9 (2019)
Publisher: MDPI-Basel
Issue Date: 29-Oct-2019
DOI: 10.3390/min9110664
Keywords: Non-invasive techniques
Comenditic pyroclastic rock
Pietra Forte carbonatic rock
terrestrial laser scanner
3D acoustic tomography
petrographic data
integrated interpretation
Subject Classification05.04. Instrumentation and techniques of general interest 
Abstract: Three di erent non-invasive techniques, namely Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and ultrasonic tomography integrated with petrographic data, were applied to characterize two rock samples of a di erent nature: A pyroclastic rock and a carbonate rock. We started a computation of high-resolution 3D models of the two samples using the TLS technique supported by a digital SfM photogrammetry survey. The resulting radiometric information available, such as reflectivity maps, SfM photogrammetry textured models and patterns of geometrical residuals, were interpreted in order to detect and underline surface materials anomalies by a comparison of reflectance and natural colour anomalies. Starting from the 3D models from previous techniques, a 3D ultrasonic tomography on each rock sample was accurately planned and carried out in order to detect internal defects or sample heterogeneity. The integration of the above three geophysical non-invasive techniques with petrographical data—especially with the textural characteristics of such materials—represents a powerful method for the definition of the heterogeneity of the rocks at a di erent scale and for calibrating in situ measurements.
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