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Authors: Tamburello, Giancarlo* 
Caliro, Stefano* 
Chiodini, Giovanni* 
De Martino, Prospero* 
Avino, Rosario* 
Minopoli, Carmine* 
Carandente, Antonio* 
Rouwet, Dmitri* 
Aiuppa, Alessandro* 
Costa, Antonio* 
Bitetto, Marcello* 
Giudice, Gaetano* 
Francofonte, Vincenzo* 
Ricci, Tullio* 
Sciarra, Alessandra* 
Bagnato, Emanuela* 
Capecchiacci, Francesco* 
Title: Escalating CO2 degassing at the Pisciarelli fumarolic system, and implications for the ongoing Campi Flegrei unrest
Journal: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 
Series/Report no.: /384 (2019)
Issue Date: 15-Jul-2019
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.07.005
Abstract: This short communication aims at providing an updated report on degassing activity and ground deformation variations observed during the ongoing (2012–2019) Campi Flegrei caldera unrest, with a particular focus on Pisciarelli, currently its most active fumarolic field.We show that the CO2 flux fromthe main Pisciarelli fumarolic vent (referred as “Soffione”) has increased by a factor N 3 since 2012, reaching in 2018–2019 levels (N600 tons/ day) that are comparable to those typical of a medium-sized erupting arc volcano. A substantial widening ofthe degassing vents and bubbling pools, and a further increase in CO2 concentrations in ambient air (up to 6000 ppm), have also been detected since mid-2018. We interpret this escalating CO2 degassing activity using a multidisciplinary dataset that includes thermodynamically estimated pressures for the source hydrothermal system, seismic and ground deformation data. From this analysis, we show that degassing, deformation and seis- micity have all reached in 2018–2019 levels never observed since the onset ofthe unrest in 2005, with an overall uplift of~57 cmand ~448 seismic events in the last year. The calculated pressure ofthe Campi Flegrei hydrother- mal system has reached ~44 bar and is rapidly increasing. Our results raise concern on the possible evolution of the Campi Flegrei unrest and reinforce the need for careful monitoring of the degassing activity at Pisciarelli, hopefully with the deployment of additional permanent gas monitoring units.
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