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Authors: Schardong, Lewis* 
Ferreira, Ana M. G.* 
Berbellini, Andrea* 
Sturgeon, William* 
Title: The anatomy of uppermost mantle shear-wave speed anomalies in the western U.S. from surface-wave amplification
Issue Date: 15-Dec-2019
Series/Report no.: /528 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115822
Abstract: We build SWUS-amp, a three-dimensional shear-wave speed model of the uppermost mantle of the western U.S. using Rayleigh wave amplification measurements in the period range of 35–125 s from teleseismic earthquakes. This represents the first-ever attempt to invert for velocity structures using Rayleigh wave amplification data alone. We use over 350,000 Rayleigh wave amplitude measurements, which are inverted using a Monte Carlo technique including uncertainty quantification. Being a local seismic observable, Rayleigh wave amplification is little affected by path-averaged effects and in principle has stronger depth resolution than classical seismic observables, such as surface wave dispersion data. SWUS-amp confirms shallow mantle heterogeneities found in previous models. In the top 100 km of the mantle, we observe low-velocity anomalies associated with Yellowstone and the Basin & Range province, as well as a fast-velocity anomaly underneath the Colorado Plateau, where a strong velocity gradient at its edges shows a drastic contrast with its surroundings. SWUS-amp also gives additional insights into the current state of the uppermost mantle in the region. We image a high-velocity anomaly beneath the high-topography Wyoming province with a maximum depth extent of about 150–170 km, which is shallower than in previous tomographic models, and resolves previous inconsistencies with geological information. Beneath the Snake River Plain, a finger-like low-velocity anomaly dips to the west, suggesting lateral flow in the region. Below about 150 km depth, SWUS-amp shows a north-south dichotomy in shear-wave speed structure, with the northern region showing mostly high-velocity anomalies, whereas the southern region shows low-velocity anomalies. This is consistent with the continuous subduction history of the western U.S. and with the recent extension and uplift of the southern region.
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