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Authors: Corradino, Claudia* 
Ganci, Gaetana* 
Cappello, Annalisa* 
Bilotta, Giuseppe* 
Hérault, Alexis* 
Del Negro, Ciro* 
Title: Mapping Recent Lava Flows at Mount Etna Using Multispectral Sentinel-2 Images and Machine Learning Techniques
Journal: Remote Sensing 
Series/Report no.: /11(2019)
Issue Date: 2019
DOI: 10.3390/rs11161916
Abstract: Accurate mapping of recent lava flows can provide significant insight into the development of flow fields that may aid in predicting future flow behavior. The task is challenging, due to both intrinsic properties of the phenomenon (e.g., lava flow resurfacing processes) and technical issues (e.g., the di culty to survey a spatially extended lava flow with either aerial or ground instruments while avoiding hazardous locations). The huge amount of moderate to high resolution multispectral satellite data currently provides new opportunities for monitoring of extreme thermal events, such as eruptive phenomena. While retrieving boundaries of an active lava flow is relatively straightforward, problems arise when discriminating a recently cooled lava flow from older lava flow fields. Here, we present a new supervised classifier based on machine learning techniques to discriminate recent lava imaged in the MultiSpectral Imager (MSI) onboard Sentinel-2 satellite. Automated classification evaluates each pixel in a scene and then groups the pixels with similar values (e.g., digital number, reflectance, radiance) into a specified number of classes. Bands at the spatial resolution of 10 m (bands 2, 3, 4, 8) are used as input to the classifier. The training phase is performed on a small number of pixels manually labeled as covered by fresh lava, while the testing characterizes the entire lava flow field. Compared with ground-based measurements and actual lava flows of Mount Etna emplaced in 2017 and 2018, our automatic procedure provides excellent results in terms of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity.
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